First Grade Science
Standards for New York State
Weather is the condition of the outside air at a particular moment. Weather can be described and measured by: temperature, wind speed and direction, form and amount of precipitation, general sky conditions (cloudy, sunny, partly cloudy)
Properties of matter: Objects can be sorted according to their properties. Matter exists in three states (solid, liquid, gas). Temperature can affect the state of matter.
The Living Environment
Healthy Habits: Humans need healthy food, exercise, and rest in order to grow. Good health habits include hand washing, personal cleanliness, avoiding harmful substances, eating a balanced diet and engaging in regular exercise. Plants - Structure and function in growth, survival, and reproduction: Roots support the plant and take in water and nutrients. Leaves help plants utilize sunlight to make food for the plant. Some plants have flowers. Flowers are reproductive structures of plants that produce fruit which contains seeds. Seeds contain stored food that aid in germination and the growth of young plants. Plants have life cycles stages (seed, young plant, mature plant). Length of time of a plant is called its life span. Plants must adapt to their environment for survival: Ways that seeds travel (wind, water, and animals) Leaf, flower, stem, and root adaptations may include variations in size, shape, thickness, color, smell and texture. describe common survival behaviors (green plants change position as the direction of light changes) plants manufacture food by utilizing air, water, and energy from the Sun Life processes common to all living things. Animals need air, water, and food in order to live and thrive. Living things grow, take in nutrients, breathe, reproduce, eliminate, waste, and die. Animals inherit genetic information (ducks have ducks, dogs have puppies…). Animals can’t inherit certain characteristics (ex: having scars). Animals closely resemble their parents and their species. Structures of animals and plants compliment the environment they live in. Species compete for food, mates, space, water, and shelter. Survival behaviors: Animals respond to changes in environment, blinking, salivating…. Senses provide essential information regarding danger, food, mates. Animals move from place to place to meet their needs Animals are influenced by their environment hibernating, nest building, migrating, communicating. Environmental conditions influence animal characteristic (camouflage, coat thickness…). Health of animals are affected by availability of food, air, water, space, shelter, heat. Plants and animals depend on each other and their physical environment. All animals depend on plants. Predators depend on prey Food chain (animal that eat plants for food may in turn become food for other animals) Sun’s energy is transferred on Earth from plants to animals through the food chain. Decomposers play a vital role in recycling nutrients Living vs. non-living. There are basic characteristics, needs, and functions common to all living things. Non-living things are present in nature or made by living things Describe the characteristics of and variations between living and nonliving things Plants require air, water, nutrients and light in order to live and thrive Nonliving things do not live and thrive Interdependence with animals/humans Humans are dependant upon and have an impact on their environment: Humans depend on their natural and constructed environments Over time, humans change their environment by cultivating crops, raising animals, creating shelter, using energy, manufacturing goods, transportation, changing populations, and carrying out other activities. Humans can change their environment in ways that can be helpful or harmful for themselves and other organisms. Animals Each animal has different structures that serve different functions in growth, survival and reproduction wings, legs, fins enable animals to seek shelter or escape predators mouth (teeth, jaw, tongue) enable some animals to eat or drink eyes, nose, ears, tongue and skin enable some animals to sense their surroundings claws, shells, spines, feathers, fur, scales, and color of body enable some animals to protect themselves characteristics of animals change according to seasonal conditions (fur grows and sheds) some animals have parts that are used for sound and smells Animal lifecycle: each generation of animals goes through a lifecycle (insects – egg, larva, pupa, adult) each kind of animal goes through its own stage of growth and development life spans of different animals vary growth is a process that animals increase in size food supplies the energy that are needed for growth and repair Organisms maintain a dynamic equilibrium that sustains life describe basic life functions of common living specimens all living things grow, take in nutrients, breathe, reproduce, and eliminate waste